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Plate 1-2 branchlet bearing
flowerbuds and flowers
Plate 1-1 plant ac Majengo, Dodoma - May 1983 (Photo Ruffo)
MAP 1 - Geographic distribution of Achyranthes aspera
10 IS 10 I * 10 II 10 II M II
1. BOTANICAL NAME: Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg.
SYNONYMS: Schousboea cordifolia Schum. & Thonn.
Alchornea cordata Benth.
COMMON NAMES: Christmas bush; Gyamma (Twi, Ashanti, Fante), Gyeka (Nzema),
Gyaka (Sefwi, Aowin), Gboo, Gbloo (Adanme), Ahame (Ewe),
Ayraba (Peki), Ipa, Ewe ipa (Yoruba), Ubube, Ubebo (Ibo),
Bambari (Hausa), Tahi (Gbari), Epai (I jaw), Mbom (Efik).
2. ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION
In Nigeria Alchornea cordifolia grows in secondary regrowth within moist lowland
forest (Map) and around seasonal swamps and brooks in dry forest.
Widely distributed in tropical Africa, occurring in Senegal, Gambia, Mali, Guinea
Bisau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Dahomey, Niger, Nigeria,
Cameroun, Fernando Po, Gabon, Cabinda, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Uganda, Generic Olanzapine Kenya,
Tanzania and Angola (see distribution map).
Erect or scrambling, multistemmed shrub, woody climber or small tree up to 10m high,
10cm in diameter; slash produces colourless, watery exudate; branchlets drooping,
ferruginous brown, tomentose, lenticellate. Leaves alternate, simple, stipules absent;
petiole 5-13cm long; blade broadly ovate, 9-28cm long. 7-16cm wide, apex acute to
acuminate, base cordate, with 2 sessile glands, margins subentire, entire or wavy,
papyraceous, deep to mid-green and rather glossy above, paler below, midrib and 4-6
pairs of major lateral veins more prominent and rusty-brown tomentose below becoming
glabrescent. Male inflorescence axillary panicles 8-36cm long, flowers minute, greenish
white, calyx 4-lobed, stamens 6-8; Female inflorescence axillary, lax elongate simple or
branched spikes, up to 38cm or more long, ovary 2-celled, styles 2, up to 20mm long, more-
or-less persistent. Fruit obovate, 5-8mm long, 8-12mm wide, 2-valved, brown stellate-
pubescent; seeds 1-2, subglobose, c.5mm in diameter.
In Nigeria Purchase Olanzapine Online recorded as flowering September to March, fruiting November to April.
4. ESTABLISHED MODERN PHARMACEUTICAL USES
Extracts from leaves of A. cordifolia have been found to inhibit the growth of
bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus and Eucherichia coli
(Ogunlana & Rams tad 1975). Alchornin and traces of alkaloid have been extracted Order Olanzapine Online from
the leaves and root bark respectively (Oliver, 1959).
5. FOLK MEDICINAL USES
A slurry of the fruit when drunk cures coughs and coated tongue or a decoction
of fresh leaves of A. cordifolia, Erythrina senegalensis, Abrus precatorius and ripe
Musa sp. fruit when drunk is a good remedy for coughs. Instead of Musa sp., fat from
meat is substituted if the patient is an infant.
Decoctions comprising a mixture of dry leaves of A. cordifolia, fresh leaves
of Psidium guajava, and seven fruits (for female patients) nine (for male patients)
of Xylopia aethiopica serve as a good laxative.
A decoction of leaves of A. cordifolia, Citrullus lanatus, open Xylopia aethiopica
fruits and stem and leaves of Cassia tora is taken as a remedy for gonorrhea.
The liquid obtained by boiling the leaves in water is used as a remedy for fever
and rheumatic pain.
The exudate of this species is applied to the eyes to remove foreign bodies.
According to Oliver (1959), the leaves and bark of this plant are used locally in the
treatment of eye and other diseases as well as an antifouling agent on boat hulls.
A decoction of the leafy twigs is used as an application to sore feet and as a
lotion or poultice (Dalziel, 1937). The pulverised dry leaf is applied to ulcers and
6. MAJOR CHEMICAL CONSTITUTENTS AND MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
Not known so far as the plant has either folk or medicinal practical uses, (see 4.)
7. HARVESTING, CONSERVING AND PREPARATION
Collection of fruit, bark and leaves, no details of processing given by author.
8. ECONOMICS AND MARKETING
Locally marketed, no figures available.
A secondary forest species of multi-stemmed or climbing habit, naturally regenerated
10. MAJOR DISEASES
Rust Skierka congensis P. Henn was reported by Eboh (1983).
11. OTHER Purchase Olanzapine USES
It has been reported that in America the juice of the berry is used in the prepara-
tion of an anti-fouling coating against marine growth on ships 1 hulls and other metal
The bark contains 11% tannin and the leaves 10%; both the twigs and leaves are
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